CGS2545 Chapter 2

Terms for Chapter 2

Enterprise data modeling: The first step in database development, in which the scope and general contents of organizational databases are specified.

Information systems architecture (ISA): A conceptual blueprint or plan that expresses the desired future structure for the information systems in an organization.

Information engineering: A formal, top-down methodology that uses a data orientation to create and maintain information systems.

Top-down planning: A generic information systems planning methodology that attempts to gain a broad understanding of the information system needs of the entire organization.

Business functions: A related group of business processes that support some aspect of the mission of an enterprise.

Functional decomposition: An iterative process of breaking down the description of a system into finer and finer detail in which one function is described in greater detain by a set of other, supporting functions.

Systems development life cycle (SDLC): The traditional methodology use to develop, maintain, and replace information systems.

Prototyping: An iterative process of system development in which requirements are converted to a working system that is continually revised through close work between analysis and users.

Computer-aided software engineering (CASE): Software tools that provide automated support for some portion of the systems development process.

Repository: A knowledge base of information about the facts that an enterprise must be able to access and the processes it must perform to be successful.

Project: A planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and an end.

Incremental commitment: A strategy in systems development projects in which the project is reviewed after each phase and continuation of the project is rejustified in each of these reviews.

Conceptual schema: A detailed, technology independent specification of the overall structure of a database.

Physical schema: Specifications for how data from a conceptual schema are stored in a computerís secondary memory.

Client/server architecture: A local area network-based environment in which database software on a server (called a database server or database engine) performs data-base commands sent to it form client workstations and application programs on each client concentrate on user interface functions.

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Questions from Companion Website

Multiple Choice

1. The first step in database development, in which the scope and content is specified, is called
Correct answer: enterprise data modeling.
Its purpose is to create an overall picture of organizational data.

2. A formal, top-down methodology that uses a data orientation to create and maintain information systems.
Correct answer: Information engineering
Information engineering includes planning, analysis, design, and implementation.

3. Which is NOT a common planning matrix?
Correct answer: Location-to-data
Location-to-data is NOT a planning matrix.

4. The traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems.
Correct answer: SDLC
The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the complete method to guide developers.

5. In this step of the SDLC, one writes, tests, and installs the programs that process the database.
Correct answer: Database implementation
Also during this step, documentation is finalized, users trained, and procedures are put into place.

6. A popular RAD method that is an iterative process of systems development is
Correct answer: prototyping.
Requirements are converted to a working system.

7. Software tools that provide automated support for the systems development process are ____ tools.
Correct answer: CASE
Computer-aided software engineering tools should draw modules, generate code, and maintain an information repository.

8. All the information collected during database development is stored in a
Correct answer: repository.
A repository is a knowledge base for development.

9. A(n) ____ is a detailed, technology independent specification of the overall structure of the database.
Correct answer: conceptual schema
A conceptual schema is done during the analysis phase.

10. A(n) ____ contains the specifications for how data will be stored.
Correct answer: physical schema
The physical schema is the definition of the physical database.

11. A(n) ___ contains a subset of the conceptual schema, relevant to a particular group of users.
Correct answer: external schema
The user view or external schema shows a subset of the database without reference to the technical considerations.

12. This tier processes HTTP protocol, scripting tasks, performs calculations, and provides access to data.
Correct answer: Applications/Web server tier
This is also called the process services tier.

13. This tier concentrates on managing the user-system interface and localized data.
Correct answer: Client tier
This is also called the presentation tier.

14. This tier performs sophisticated calculations and manages the merging of data from multiple sources.
Correct answer: Enterprise server tier <
This is also called the data services tier.

15. Prototyping works best when a database is
Correct answer: small, stand-alone, with a small user base.
Close intervention between systems developers and users makes a small, stand-alone system the best candidate for prototyping.

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True/False Questions

1. Often database development begins with enterprise data modeling.
Correct answer: TRUE
Enterprise data modeling is the first step in which the scope and general contents of the database system are specified.

2. Corporate planning objects are organizational goals, critical success factors, and problem areas.
Correct answer: FALSE
Corporate planning objectives define the business scope.

3. Functional decomposition is the process of breaking down the description of a system into greater levels of detail.
Correct answer: TRUE
Functional decomposition is used to simplify problems, isolate attention, and identify components.

4. SDLC is a rapid application development tool method.
Correct answer: FALSE
SDLC is a complete set of (often lengthy) steps used to develop a database.

5. Physical database design is one of the first steps of the SDLC.
Correct answer: FALSE
Physical design is done after much analysis and logical design work has been completed.

6. RAD is a group of software development tools.
Correct answer: FALSE
RAD is Rapid Application Development method, an iterative approach to developing systems.

7. It is the responsibility of the systems analyst to select and manage the systems or database development team.
Correct answer: FALSE
The project manager usually selects and manages the development team.

8. Incremental commitment keeps resources from being wasted when an original concept or project is no longer feasible.
Correct answer: TRUE
With incremental commitment, a project is reviewed for feasibility after each phase.

9. A conceptual schema defines the whole database without reference to how the data are stored.
Correct answer: TRUE
Usually a conceptual schema is depicted in a graphical format.

10. An E-R diagram is an example of a physical schema.
Correct answer: FALSE
An E-R diagram is an example of a conceptual schema.

11. A report is a question answered from the database.
Correct answer: FALSE
A query is a question answered from the database.

12. SQL is a database design tool.
Correct answer: FALSE
SQL is a database query language.

13. The client tier is where the data across the organization are merged.
Correct answer: FALSE
The enterprise tier merges data from across the Internet.

14. A repository holds the tools that are used to develop data models.
Correct answer: FALSE
The repository holds all the documentation for the database system.

15. Top-down planning interviews the executives of the business to determine all the systems needs.
Correct answer: FALSE
In the top-down planning approach specific information systems are deduced from a broad understanding of information needs from many sources.

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Essay Questions

1. What are the six key components of information systems architecture?

The six components of information systems architecture are :

2. Why do organizations often use RAD methods instead of the SDLC methodology?

RAD methods are often used because the SDLC process is a very lengthy process and the system is not usable until the end of the process. RAD methods allow the users to access the system as it is being developed and fine-tuned.

3. What are some advantages of using the SDLC method?

The systems development life cycle method is a methodical, highly structured approach. It includes many checks and balances to insure that each step produces the desired results. It insures that new or replacement information is consistent with existing systems.

4. What are the three important features of CASE tools?

The three important features of CASE tools are:

5. What are some reasons for the use of client/server architecture?

Client/server architecture allows for simultaneous processing on multiple processors for the same application. It also allows use of the best data processing features of each computer platform. Client technologies can be mixed, yet share common data. Processing can be done close to the source of processed data, therefore improving response time. Client/server architecture allows and encourages the acceptance of open system standards.

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