CGS2545 Chapter 1

CGS2545 Terms for Chapter 1

Database: An organized collection of logically related data.

Data: Facts, text, graphics, images, sound and video segments that have meaning in the users’ environment.

Information: Data that have been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data.

Metadata: Data that describe the properties or characteristics of other data.

Disadvantages of the File Processing Systems:

Enterprise data model: A graphical model that show the high-level entities for the organization & the relationships among those entities.

Database application: An application program (or set of related programs) that is used to perform a series of database activities (create, read, update, and delete) on behalf of database users.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems: A business management system that integrates all functions of the enterprise, such as manufacturing, sales, finance, marketing, inventory, accounting, and human resources. ERP systems are software applications that provide the data necessary for the enterprise to examine and manage its activities.

Data warehouse: An integrated decision support database whose contact is derived from the various operational databases.

Legacy data: Data contained by a system used prior to the installation of a new system. Often legacy data resides on mainframe systems, which may have been replaced by client/server systems or Web-enabled systems.

Extranet: Use of Internet protocols to establish limited access to company data and information by the company’s customers and suppliers.

Intranet: Use of Internet protocols to establish access to company data and information that is limited to the organization.

Advantages of the Database Approach:

Data independence: The separation of data descriptions from the application programs that use the data.

User view: A logical description of some portion of the database that is required by a user to perform some task.

Constraint: A rule that cannot be violated by database users.

Costs and Risks of the Database Approach:

Repository: A centralized knowledge base of all data definitions, data relationships, screen and report formats, and other system components.

Database management system (DBMS): A software application that is used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to user databases.

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Questions from the 1st class meeting

(August 26, 2003)

1. What is a database?

Page 4:

We define database as an organized collection of logically related data. A database may be of any size and complexity. For example, a salesperson may maintain a small database of customer contact on her laptop computer that consists of a few megabytes of data. A large corporation may build a very large database consisting of several terabytes of data (a terabyte is a trillion bytes) on a large mainframe computer that is used for decision support applications.

Data consist of facts, text, graphics, images, sounds, and video segments that have meaning in the users’ environment.

2. Why use databases as opposed to traditional file processing systems/spreadsheets?

Page 8 table 1-2:

Disadvantages of File Processing Systems:

Page 21 table 1-5:

Advantages of the Database Approach:

3. How have databases evolved?

See page 26 for chart and details.

Evolution of DB Systems

4. How are database systems created?




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Questions from Companion Website

Study Guide Multiply Questions

1. A petabyte of data is a _____ bytes.
Correct answer: quadrillion
Very large data warehouses may contain more than a petabyte of data.

2. An example of metadata for a class roster could be
Correct answer: Integer.
This is metadata because it describes the properties of a data field.

3. Which is NOT a disadvantage of traditional file processing systems?
Correct answer: Reduced data redundancy <
Unplanned duplicate data files (data redundancy) is very common.

4. An enterprise data model is a(n) ____ model.
Correct answer: graphical
An enterprise data model shows the entities for an organization and the associations among those entities.

5. Which is NOT a component of a relational database?
Correct answer: Hierarchy
Relational databases use a table structure, NOT a hierarchical design.

6. Each database application performs some combination of the following operations.
Correct answer: Read, update, and delete
Some combination of read, update, delete, and create are included in database applications.

7. Database applications can be divided into five categories. Which is NOT a database application category?
Correct answer: Relational
Database application categories include personal, workgroup, department, enterprise, and Internet, Intranet and extranet.

8. A database that supports organization-wide operations and decision making is a(n) ____ database.
Correct answer: enterprise
An organization may have several enterprise databases.

9. Which type of database application does NOT typically use client/server architecture?
Correct answer: Personal
Typically personal database applications use desktop/laptop computer or PDA architecture.

10. Which is NOT an advantage of the database approach?
Correct answer: Limited data sharing
A database is designed to maximize corporate resource sharing.

11. Automated tools used to design databases and application programs are called ____ tools.
Correct answer: CASE
CASE is an acronym of Computer-Aided Software Engineering.

12. File processing systems were dominant during this period.
Correct answer: 1960s
File management systems were dominant and database management systems were introduced in the 1960s.

13. Client/server computing, data warehousing, and the Internet all became increasingly important during this period.
Correct answer: 1990s
The 1990s ushered in this new era of computing.

14. A software application that is used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to user databases is a(n)
Correct answer: DBMS.
A database management system performs these tasks.

15. ____ is a simple, fourth generation language used for data retrieval.
Correct answer: SQL
Structured Query Language is used for data retrieval.

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True/False Questions

1. DATA and INFORMATION are indistinguishable terms.
Correct answer: FALSE
Information is data that has been processed.

2. The management of metadata is more important than the management of the actual data.
Correct answer: TRUE
Metadata allows database designers to understand the characteristics of the data.

3. Organizations that rely on traditional file processing systems may devote as much as 80 percent of the total information systems budget to program maintenance.
Correct answer: TRUE
This leaves little time for developing new applications.

4. The lines in an E-R diagram represent entities.
Correct answer: FALSE
The boxes represent the entities; the lines represent relationships.

5. A separate database containing historical and summarized information is called an OLAP.
Correct answer: FALSE
A data warehouse or data mart contains historical and summarized information and can be analyzed using OLAP (on-line analytical processing) tools.

6. A PDA or laptop computer will likely contain a workgroup database.
Correct answer: FALSE
Personal databases are used on a PDA or laptop computer.

7. Personnel, marketing, manufacturing, and accounting are all examples of workgroups and use workgroup databases.
Correct answer: FALSE
A department is a functional unit within an organization, such as personnel, marketing, manufacturing, and accounting and use a department database.

8. Legacy data is data contained by a previously used system.
Correct answer: TRUE
This historical data should be included in a data warehouse for analysis.

9. The most recent change affecting the database environment is the introduction of ERP systems.
Correct answer: FALSE
Acceptance of the Internet by businesses has resulted in important changes in business models and data needs.

10. ERP databases are indispensable to the development of on-line shopping applications.
Correct answer: FALSE
ERP databases support organization wide operations and decision-making.

11. A user view is a logical description of a portion of the database.
Correct answer: TRUE
The user view allows users to see the part of the database necessary to perform their job.

12. A multi-user database often requires substantial personnel training on an ongoing basis.
Correct answer: TRUE
Substantial training is needed to keep up with new releases and upgrades.

13. A repository is a centralized knowledge base for all historical data.
Correct answer: FALSE
A data warehouse contains historical data. A repository contains data definitions, data relationships, screen and report formats, and other system components.

14. The first database management systems were introduced during the 1970s.
Correct answer: FALSE
Database management systems were first used for large and complex ventures such as the Apollo moon-landing program.

15. E.F. Codd and others developed the hierarchical DBMS model in the 1960s.
Correct answer: FALSE
Codd worked on the relational data model in the 1970s, which gained commercial acceptance in the 1980s.

Essay Questions

1. What are the disadvantages associated with conventional file processing systems?

The disadvantages associated with conventional file processing systems include program-data dependence, duplication of data, limited data sharing, lengthy development times, and excessive program maintenance.

2. What is a database application and what basic operations does it perform?

A database application is a program or set of programs that are used to perform a series of database operations. Each database application performs some combination of the create, read, update, and delete operations.

3. What is the major drawback of personal databases?

The major drawback of personal databases is that their data CANNOT be shared with other users. For this reason, they should be limited to special situations where there is NOT a need to share the data.

4. What business opportunities do Web-enabled databases offer?

Web-enabled databases allow customers or partners to query databases online and receive current information. They can reduce customer service calls and are necessary for online shopping sites. They are also used to collect information for customer relationship management systems.

5. Why do some businesses NOT realize all of the potential benefits of using a database?

Businesses may NOT realize all the benefits because of the limitation of older data models and data management software or because of poor planning and/or implementation.

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